Reading List


Disclaimer: This is a work in progress. We are conducting a literature review and meta-analysis. Our first steps were to search journal article indices (e.g. Google Scholar, Web of Science) and to retrieve and store citations and full-text articles. Some citations may contain typographical errors or incorrectly captured data. We are working to review and sanitize these references. Full-text documents are not reproduced here to avoid copyright infringement, however DOI identifiers and hyperlinks to the materials are provided where possible. The papers / topics below are selected based on prevalence in the literature and relevance to the general topic of nootropics. Inclusion in the list below in no way implies an endorsement, recommendation or plan to sell any specific supplement or medication.


1. Aarsland D. Donepezil for cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease: a randomised controlled study. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery &; Psychiatry. 2002;72(6). doi:10.1136/jnnp.72.6.708

2. Abramets I, Kuznetsov Y, Evdokimov D, Zaika T. Piracetam potentiates neuronal and behavioral effects of ketamine. Research Results in Pharmacology. 2019;5(2). doi:10.3897/rrpharmacology.5.35530

3. Adibhatla R, Hatcher J. Cytidine 5?-Diphosphocholine (CDP-Choline) in Stroke and Other CNS Disorders. Neurochemical Research. 2005;30(1). doi:10.1007/s11064-004-9681-8

4. Adibhatla R, Hatcher J, Tureyen K. CDP-choline liposomes provide significant reduction in infarction over free CDP-choline in stroke. Brain Research. 2005;1058(1-2). doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2005.07.067

5. Adibhatla R, Hatcher J, Larsen E, Chen X, Sun D, Tsao F. CDP-choline Significantly Restores Phosphatidylcholine Levels by Differentially Affecting Phospholipase A2 and CTP: Phosphocholine Cytidylyltransferase after Stroke. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2006;281(10). doi:10.1074/jbc.m512112200

6. Adriani W, Granstrem O, Romano E, Koroleva S, Laviola G. Modulatory Effects of Cortexin and Cortagen on Locomotor Activity and Anxiety-Related Behavior in Mice. The Open Neuropsychopharmacology Journal. 2009;2(1). doi:10.2174/1876523800902010022

7. Agha K, Abo-Dya N, Issahaku A, et al. Novel Sunifiram-carbamate hybrids as potential dual acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and NMDAR co-agonist: simulation-guided analogue design and pharmacological screening. Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry. 2022;37(1). doi:10.1080/14756366.2022.2068147

8. Aguiar S, Borowski T. Neuropharmacological Review of the Nootropic Herb iBacopa monnieri/i. Rejuvenation Research. 2013;16(4). doi:10.1089/rej.2013.1431

9. Ahuja C, Fehlings M. Concise Review: Bridging the Gap: Novel Neuroregenerative and Neuroprotective Strategies in Spinal Cord Injury. Stem Cells Translational Medicine. 2016;5(7). doi:10.5966/sctm.2015-0381

10. Ahuja C, Mothe A, Khazaei M, et al. The leading edge: Emerging neuroprotective and neuroregenerative cell-based therapies for spinal cord injury. Stem Cells Translational Medicine. 2020;9(12). doi:10.1002/sctm.19-0135

11. Alahmdi M, Syed K, Vanaraj S, et al. In Vitro Anticancer and Antibacterial Activity of Green Synthesized ZnO NPs Using Clitorea Ternatea Flower Extract: Inhibits MCF-7 Cell Proliferation Via Intrinsic Apoptotic Pathway. Published online January 1, 2022. doi:10.21203/

12. Alcantara-Gonzalez F, Mendoza-Perez C, Zaragoza N, et al. Combined administration of cerebrolysin and donepezil induces plastic changes in prefrontal cortex in aged mice. Synapse. 2012;66(11). doi:10.1002/syn.21588

13. Alexander GC, Karlawish J. The problem of aducanumab for the treatment of Alzheimer disease. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2021;174(9):1303-1304.

14. Alsarrani A, Kaplita P. In silico and in vitro evaluation of brain penetration properties of selected nootropic agents. Future Drug Discovery. 2019;1(1). doi:10.4155/fdd-2019-0009

15. Alvarez X, Cacabelos R, Laredo M, et al. A 24‐week, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled study of three dosages of Cerebrolysin in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease. European journal of neurology. 2006;13(1):43-54.

16. AM A, Uddin M, Wahid F, AI M, Rahman M. Neurodefensive Effect of Olea europaea L. in Alloxan-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction and Brain Tissue Oxidative Stress in Mice: Incredible Natural Nootropic. Journal of Neurology and Neuroscience. 2016;7. doi:10.21767/2171-6625.1000126

17. Amin H, Sharma R. Nootropic efficacy of Satvavajaya Chikitsaand Ayurvedic drug therapy: A comparative clinical exposition. International Journal of Yoga. 2015;8(2). doi:10.4103/0973-6131.158473

18. Anand A. Aducanumab (Aduhelm), a cure to the tragedy of Alzheimer’s Disease?

19. Anders P, Davis E. Oral health of patients with intellectual disabilities: A systematic review. Special Care in Dentistry. 2010;30(3). doi:10.1111/j.1754-4505.2010.00136.x

20. Andreasen N, Minthon L, Davidsson P, et al. Evaluation of CSF-tau and CSF-A\upbeta42 as Diagnostic Markers for Alzheimer Disease in Clinical Practice. Archives of Neurology. 2001;58(3). doi:10.1001/archneur.58.3.373

21. Anikina L, Gazieva G, Kravchenko A. Nootropic activity of N-(2-acetylaminoethyl)glycolurils. Russian Chemical Bulletin. 2020;69(3). doi:10.1007/s11172-020-2799-2

22. Antón Álvarez X, Fuentes P. Cerebrolysin in Alzheimer’s disease. Drugs Today (Barc). 2011;47(7):487-513. doi:10.1358/dot.2011.47.7.1656496

23. Arenth P, Russell K, Ricker J, Zafonte R. CDP-Choline as a Biological Supplement During Neurorecovery: A Focused Review. PM&;R. 2011;3. doi:10.1016/j.pmrj.2011.03.012

24. Asztely F, Hanse E, Wigström H, Gustafsson B. Aniracetam-evoked potentiation does not interact with long-term potentiation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Synapse. 1992;11(4). doi:10.1002/syn.890110409

25. Bae C, Cho C, Cho K, et al. A double‐blind, placebo‐controlled, multicenter study of cerebrolysin for Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2000;48(12):1566-1571.

26. Bang HJ, Kim IH, Kim B. Phospholipase A 1 -catalyzed hydrolysis of soy phosphatidylcholine to prepare l -α-glycerylphosphorylcholine in organic-aqueous media. Food Chemistry. 2016;190. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.05.093

27. Bao H, Zhang J, Yeo S, et al. Memory enhancing and neuroprotective effects of selected ginsenosides. Archives of Pharmacal Research. 2005;28(3). doi:10.1007/bf02977802

28. Baranova A, Whiting M, Hamm R. Delayed, Post-Injury Treatment with Aniracetam Improves Cognitive Performance after Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats. Journal of Neurotrauma. 2006;23(8). doi:10.1089/neu.2006.23.1233

29. Bard F, Cannon C, Barbour R, et al. Peripherally administered antibodies against amyloid B-peptide enter the central nervous system and reduce pathology in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease. Nature Medicine. 2000;6(8). doi:10.1038/78682

30. Barnes L, Wilson R, Bienias J, Schneider J, Evans D, Bennett D. Sex Differences in the Clinical Manifestations of Alzheimer Disease Pathology. Archives of General Psychiatry. 2005;62(6). doi:10.1001/archpsyc.62.6.685

31. Bartus RT, Dean III RL, Sherman KA, Friedman E, Beer B. Profound effects of combining choline and piracetam on memory enhancement and cholinergic function in aged rats. Neurobiology of aging. 1981;2(2):105-111.

32. Beach T, Monsell S, Phillips L, Kukull W. Accuracy of the Clinical Diagnosis of Alzheimer Disease at National Institute on Aging Alzheimer Disease Centers, 2005-2010. Journal of Neuropathology &; Experimental Neurology. 2012;71(4). doi:10.1097/nen.0b013e31824b211b

33. Beadle-Brown J, Mansell J, Kozma A. Deinstitutionalization in intellectual disabilities. Current Opinion in Psychiatry. 2007;20(5). doi:10.1097/yco.0b013e32827b14ab

34. Becerra G, Tatko L, Pak E, Murashov A, Hoane M. Transplantation of GABAergic neurons but not astrocytes induces recovery of sensorimotor function in the traumatically injured brain. Behavioural Brain Research. 2007;179(1). doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2007.01.024

35. Belaguli G, Nithin S, Mohan K. Customized Ayurveda approaches in modulating brain injury: A case report. Journal of Ayurveda Case Reports. 2022;5(2). doi:10.4103/jacr.jacr_71_21

36. Belenichev I, Gorbacheva S, Demchenko A, Bukhtiyarova N. The thiol-disulfide balance and the nitric oxide system in the brain tissue of rats subjected to experimental acute impairment of cerebral blood flow: The therapeutic effects of nootropic drugs. Neurochemical Journal. 2014;8(1). doi:10.1134/s181971241401005x

37. Bennett D, Schneider J, Wilson R, Bienias J, Arnold S. Neurofibrillary Tangles Mediate the Association of Amyloid Load With Clinical Alzheimer Disease and Level of Cognitive Function. Archives of Neurology. 2004;61(3). doi:10.1001/archneur.61.3.378

38. Bhosale U, Somani R, Talpate K, Zambare M. Neuroprotective and nootropic activity of Clitorea ternatea Linn.(Fabaceae) leaves on diabetes induced cognitive decline in experimental animals. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences. 2014;6(1). doi:10.4103/0975-7406.124317

39. Bianchi V, Locatelli V, Rizzi L. Neurotrophic and Neuroregenerative Effects of GH/IGF1. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2017;18(11). doi:10.3390/ijms18112441

40. Birks J, Flicker L. Donepezil for mild cognitive impairment. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Published online July 1, 2006. doi:10.1002/14651858.cd006104

41. Birks J, Harvey R. Donepezil for dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease. Published online July 1, 2003. doi:10.1002/14651858.cd001190

42. Bishop S. Neurocognitive mechanisms of anxiety: an integrative account. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 2007;11(7). doi:10.1016/j.tics.2007.05.008

43. Bizzarri M, Minini M, Monti N. Revisiting the Concept of Human Disease. Published online 2020. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-32857-3_1

44. Blin O, Audebert C, Pitel S, et al. Effects of dimethylaminoethanol pyroglutamate (DMAE p-Glu) against memory deficits induced by scopolamine: evidence from preclinical and clinical studies. Psychopharmacology. 2009;207(2). doi:10.1007/s00213-009-1648-7

45. Bobinski F, Martins D, Bratti T, et al. Neuroprotective and neuroregenerative effects of low-intensity aerobic exercise on sciatic nerve crush injury in mice. Neuroscience. 2011;194. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2011.07.075

46. Bobkov Yu, Morozov I, Glozman O, Nerobkova L, Zhmurenko L, Zagorevskii V. Pharmacological characteristics of 4-phenylpiracetam ? A new phenyl analog of piracetam. Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine. 1983;95(4). doi:10.1007/bf00838859

47. Böckmann K, Franz A, Minarski M, et al. Differential metabolism of choline supplements in adult volunteers. European Journal of Nutrition. 2021;61(1). doi:10.1007/s00394-021-02637-6

48. Bolla K, Brown K, Eldreth D, Tate K, Cadet J. Dose-related neurocognitive effects of marijuana use. Neurology. 2002;59(9). doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000031422.66442.49

49. Bressler S, Tognoli E. Operational principles of neurocognitive networks. International Journal of Psychophysiology. 2006;60(2). doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2005.12.008

50. Bright J, Smith C, Taylor P, Crook R. Stochastic generation of synthetic minutely irradiance time series derived from mean hourly weather observation data. Solar Energy. 2015;115. doi:10.1016/j.solener.2015.02.032

51. Brock J, Golding D, Smith P, Nokes L, Kwan A, Lee P. Update on the Role of Actovegin in Musculoskeletal Medicine. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 2018;Publish Ahead of Print. doi:10.1097/jsm.0000000000000566

52. Brody D, Holtzman D. Morris water maze search strategy analysis in PDAPP mice before and after experimental traumatic brain injury. Experimental Neurology. 2006;197(2). doi:10.1016/j.expneurol.2005.10.020

53. Bryan J. Psychological effects of dietary components of tea: caffeine and L-theanine. Nutrition Reviews. 2008;66(2). doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2007.00011.x

54. Buchmayer F, Pleiner J, Elmlinger M, Lauer G, Nell G, Sitte H. Actovegin®: a biological drug for more than 5 decades. Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift. 2011;161(3-4). doi:10.1007/s10354-011-0865-y

55. Buchnat M, Wojciechowska A. Online education of students with mild intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder during the COVID-19 pandemic. Interdyscyplinarne Konteksty Pedagogiki Specjalnej. 2020;(29). doi:10.14746/ikps.2020.29.07

56. Butterfield D, Hensley K, Harris M, Mattson M, Carney J. \upbeta-Amyloid Peptide Free Radical Fragments Initiate Synaptosomal Lipoperoxidation in a Sequence-Specific Fashion: Implications to Alzheimer\primes Disease. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 1994;200(2). doi:10.1006/bbrc.1994.1508

57. Cabero T, Sarmiento R. Estudio de suceptibilidad genetica a la degeneracion macular asociada a la edad (DMAE). FarmaJournal. 2020;5(2). doi:10.14201/fj2020526372

58. Cai Q, Zhong S, Chen K. Target Detection in Rural River Image Based on Yolo V5 Model with the Cross-Stitch Unit. Published online July 1, 2021. doi:10.1109/icivc52351.2021.9527005

59. Cakic V. Smart drugs for cognitive enhancement: ethical and pragmatic considerations in the era of cosmetic neurology. Journal of Medical Ethics. 2009;35(10). doi:10.1136/jme.2009.030882

60. Caner B, Kafa M, Bekar A, et al. Intraperitoneal administration of CDP-choline or a combination of cytidine plus choline improves nerve regeneration and functional recovery in a rat model of sciatic nerve injury. Neurological Research. 2012;34(3). doi:10.1179/1743132812y.0000000003

61. Cansev M, Ilcol Y, Yilmaz M, Hamurtekin E, Ulus I. Peripheral administration of CDP-choline, phosphocholine or choline increases plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations. Autonomic &; Autacoid Pharmacology. 2008;28(1). doi:10.1111/j.1474-8673.2007.00416.x

62. Cansev M, Watkins C, Beek E, Wurtman R. Oral uridine-5\prime-monophosphate (UMP) increases brain CDP-choline levels in gerbils. Brain Research. 2005;1058(1-2). doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2005.07.054

63. Cansev M, Yilmaz M, Ilcol Y, Hamurtekin E, Ulus I. Cardiovascular effects of CDP-choline and its metabolites: Involvement of peripheral autonomic nervous system. European Journal of Pharmacology. 2007;577(1-3). doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2007.08.029

64. Carpino L. 1-Hydroxy-7-azabenzotriazole. An efficient peptide coupling additive. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 1993;115(10). doi:10.1021/ja00063a082

65. Cauwenberghe C, Broeckhoven C, Sleegers K. The genetic landscape of Alzheimer disease: clinical implications and perspectives. Genetics in Medicine. 2016;18(5). doi:10.1038/gim.2015.117

66. Cenini G, Voos W. Mitochondria as Potential Targets in Alzheimer Disease Therapy: An Update. Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2019;10. doi:10.3389/fphar.2019.00902

67. Chakraborty S, Khan G, Karmohapatra S, Bhattacharya R, Bhattacharya G, Sinha A. Purification and mechanism of action of “cortexin,” a novel antihypertensive protein hormone from kidney and its role in essential hypertension in men. Journal of the American Society of Hypertension. 2009;3(2). doi:10.1016/j.jash.2008.11.002

68. Chang E, Goldberg J. Glaucoma 2.0: Neuroprotection, Neuroregeneration, Neuroenhancement. Ophthalmology. 2012;119(5). doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2011.11.003

69. Chaudhari K, Tiwari N, Tiwari R, Sharma R. Neurocognitive Effect of Nootropic Drug Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) in Alzheimer’s Disease. Annals of Neurosciences. 2017;24(2). doi:10.1159/000475900

70. Chaudhari V, G M. A Critical Review of Role of Medhya Dravyas (Nootropic Drugs) in Brain Fog with special reference to Covid- 19. International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research. Published online October 1, 2022. doi:10.47070/ijapr.v10i9.2526

71. Cheignon C, Tomas M, Bonnefont-Rousselot D, Faller P, Hureau C, Collin F. Oxidative stress and the amyloid beta peptide in Alzheimer’s disease. Redox Biology. 2018;14. doi:10.1016/j.redox.2017.10.014

72. Chen CC, Wei ST, Tsaia SC, Chen XX, Cho DY. Cerebrolysin enhances cognitive recovery of mild traumatic brain injury patients: double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study. British journal of neurosurgery. 2013;27(6):803-807.

73. Chen Z, Huan G, Ma Y. Computational Methods for Multiphase Flows in Porous Media. Published online January 1, 2006. doi:10.1137/1.9780898718942

74. Chen Z, Ji H, Liu C, Bing W, Wang Z, Qu X. A Multinuclear Metal Complex Based DNase-Mimetic Artificial Enzyme: Matrix Cleavage for Combating Bacterial Biofilms. Angewandte Chemie. 2016;128(36). doi:10.1002/ange.201605296

75. Chernichovsky D, Zangwill L. Micro-Economic Theory of the Household and Nutrition Programmes. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 1990;12(1). doi:10.1177/156482659001200124

76. Chicoine B, Head E, Janicki J. Aduhelm: Rush to judgement? Exceptional Parent. Published online 2021.

77. Cho C, Aardema N, Bunnell M, et al. Effect of Choline Forms and Gut Microbiota Composition on Trimethylamine-N-Oxide Response in Healthy Men. Nutrients. 2020;12(8). doi:10.3390/nu12082220

78. Cho HS, Kim S, Lee SY, Park J, Kim SJ, Chun H. Protective effect of the green tea component, l-theanine on environmental toxins-induced neuronal cell death. NeuroToxicology. 2008;29(4). doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2008.03.004

79. Chou J, Harvey B, Chang CF, Shen H, Morales M, Wang Y. Neuroregenerative effects of BMP7 after stroke in rats. Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 2006;240(1-2). doi:10.1016/j.jns.2005.08.015

80. Chui H, Ramirez-Gomez L. Clinical and imaging features of mixed Alzheimer and vascular pathologies. Alzheimer's Research &; Therapy. 2015;7(1). doi:10.1186/s13195-015-0104-7

81. Chung J, Torta F, Masai K, et al. PI4P/phosphatidylserine countertransport at ORP5- and ORP8-mediated ER-plasma membrane contacts. Science. 2015;349(6246). doi:10.1126/science.aab1370

82. Ciarlet P. The Finite Element Method for Elliptic Problems. Published online January 1, 2002. doi:10.1137/1.9780898719208

83. Citradewi P, Hidayat H, Purwiandono G, Fatimah I, Sagadevan S. Clitorea ternatea-mediated silver nanoparticle-doped hydroxyapatite derived from cockle shell as antibacterial material. Chemical Physics Letters. 2021;769. doi:10.1016/j.cplett.2021.138412

84. Clarfield A. Book Review Concepts of Alzheimer Disease: Biological, clinical, and cultural perspectives Edited by Peter J. Whitehouse, Konrad Maurer, and Jesse F. Ballenger. 341 pp., illustrated. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000. 55. 0-8018-6233-7. New England Journal of Medicine. 2000;343(13). doi:10.1056/nejm200009283431317

85. Clausen F, Haanell A, Israelsson C, et al. Neutralization of interleukin-1\upbeta reduces cerebral edema and tissue loss and improves late cognitive outcome following traumatic brain injury in mice. European Journal of Neuroscience. 2011;34(1). doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2011.07723.x

86. Cobb J, Eckhart A, Motsinger-Reif A, Carr B, Groop L, Ferrannini E. α-Hydroxybutyric Acid Is a Selective Metabolite Biomarker of Impaired Glucose Tolerance. Diabetes Care. 2016;39(6). doi:10.2337/dc15-2752

87. Cohen S, Mutter W. Effects of Piracetam on N-Methyl-\<i\>D\</i\>-Aspartate Receptor Properties in the Aged Mouse Brain. Pharmacology. 1993;47(4). doi:10.1159/000139100

88. Concepcion E, Gomez-Hernandez Angel, Martin M, Segovia J. Density and viscosity measurements of aqueous amines at high pressures: DEA-water, DMAE-water and TEA-water mixtures. The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics. 2017;112. doi:10.1016/j.jct.2017.05.001

89. Cossi M, Barone V. Time-dependent density functional theory for molecules in liquid solutions. The Journal of Chemical Physics. 2001;115(10). doi:10.1063/1.1394921

90. Courtenay K, Perera B. COVID-19 and people with intellectual disability: impacts of a pandemic. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine. 2020;37(3). doi:10.1017/ipm.2020.45

91. Crescenzi O, Tomaselli S, Guerrini R, et al. Solution structure of the Alzheimer amyloid \upbeta-peptide (1-42) in an apolar microenvironment. European Journal of Biochemistry. 2002;269(22). doi:10.1046/j.1432-1033.2002.03271.x

92. Cui R, Ding J, Chen Y. Magnesium acrylate induced interfacial compatibilization of EPDM/PP thermoplastic vulcanizate and shape memory behavior. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing. 2019;122. doi:10.1016/j.compositesa.2019.04.016

93. Cummins R, Lau A. Community Integration or Community Exposure? A Review and Discussion in Relation to People with an Intellectual Disability. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities. 2003;16(2). doi:10.1046/j.1468-3148.2003.00157.x

94. D’yakonova I, Ishanova Yu, Rakhmanova I. Otoprotective Effect of Cortexin, Cogitum, and Elkar Administered Simultaneously with Netromycin in the Experiment. Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine. 2020;169(4). doi:10.1007/s10517-020-04908-4

95. Daly E, Zaitchik D, Copeland M, Schmahmann J, Gunther J, Albert M. Predicting Conversion to Alzheimer Disease Using Standardized Clinical Information. Archives of Neurology. 2000;57(5). doi:10.1001/archneur.57.5.675

96. Danysz W, Parsons C. The NMDA receptor antagonist memantine as a symptomatological and neuroprotective treatment for Alzheimer's disease: preclinical evidence. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2003;18(S1). doi:10.1002/gps.938

97. Dartigues JF, Carcaillon L, Helmer C, Lechevallier N, Lafuma A, Khoshnood B. Vasodilators and Nootropics as Predictors of Dementia and Mortality in the PAQUID Cohort. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2007;55(3). doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2007.01084.x

98. Das N, Kim M, Rani J, Hong SM, Jang JH. Electroforming-Free Bipolar Resistive Switching Memory Based on Magnesium Fluoride. Micromachines. 2021;12(9). doi:10.3390/mi12091049

99. Dash P, Orsi S, Moore A. Histone deactylase inhibition combined with behavioral therapy enhances learning and memory following traumatic brain injury. Neuroscience. 2009;163(1). doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.06.028

100. Dash P, Zhao J, Orsi S, Zhang M, Moore A. Sulforaphane improves cognitive function administered following traumatic brain injury. Neuroscience Letters. 2009;460(2). doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2009.04.028

101. De Deyn PP, De Reuck J, Deberdt W, Vlietinck R, Orgogozo JM. Treatment of acute ischemic stroke with piracetam. Stroke. 1997;28(12):2347-2352.

102. Deb S, Chaplin R, Sohanpal S, Unwin G, Soni R, Lenotre L. The effectiveness of mood stabilizers and antiepileptic medication for the management of behaviour problems in adults with intellectual disability: a systematic review. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research. 2007;0(0). doi:10.1111/j.1365-2788.2007.00965.x

103. DeFina P, Moser R, Glenn M, Lichtenstein J, Fellus J. Alzheimer's Disease Clinical and Research Update for Health Care Practitioners. Journal of Aging Research. 2013;2013. doi:10.1155/2013/207178

104. Demchenko A, Belenichev I. Efficiency of cortexin under the conditions of experimental chronic brain ischemia. Neurochemical Journal. 2016;10(1). doi:10.1134/s1819712416010050

105. Dennehy H, Allen A, McGlinchey E, et al. A scoping review of post-diagnostic dementia supports for people with intellectual disability. Aging &; Mental Health. Published online October 1, 2022. doi:10.1080/13607863.2022.2130171

106. Derev’yannykh E, Bel’skaya G, Knoll E, Krylova L, Popov D. Experience in the use of actovegin in the treatment of patients with cognitive disorders in the acute period of stroke. Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology. 2008;38(8). doi:10.1007/s11055-008-9051-0

107. DeTure M, Dickson D. The neuropathological diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. Molecular Neurodegeneration. 2019;14(1). doi:10.1186/s13024-019-0333-5

108. Dhanasekaran M. Evaluation of Nootropic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of iArdisia blatteri/i using Different Experimental Models in Rats. Asian Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Science. 2019;9(4). doi:10.5958/2231-5659.2019.00041.9

109. Diaz-Arrastia R, Agostini M, Madden C, Ness P. Posttraumatic epilepsy: The endophenotypes of a human model of epileptogenesis. Epilepsia. 2009;50. doi:10.1111/j.1528-1167.2008.02006.x

110. DiBella M, Thomas M, Alyousef H, et al. Choline Intake as Supplement or as a Component of Eggs Increases Plasma Choline and Reduces Interleukin-6 without Modifying Plasma Cholesterol in Participants with Metabolic Syndrome. Nutrients. 2020;12(10). doi:10.3390/nu12103120

111. Dieckmann A, Kriebel M, Andriambeloson E, Ziegler D, Elmlinger M. Treatment with Actovegin® Improves Sensory Nerve Function and Pathology in Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats via Mechanisms Involving Inhibition of PARP Activation. Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes. 2011;120(03). doi:10.1055/s-0031-1291248

112. Dietrich A. Neurocognitive mechanisms underlying the experience of flow. Consciousness and Cognition. 2004;13(4). doi:10.1016/j.concog.2004.07.002

113. Ditchman N, Werner S, Kosyluk K, Jones N, Elg B, Corrigan P. Stigma and intellectual disability: Potential application of mental illness research. Rehabilitation Psychology. 2013;58(2). doi:10.1037/a0032466

114. Ditter S, Mirra S. Neuropathologic and clinical features of Parkinson’s disease in Alzheimer’s disease patients. Alzheimer Disease &; Associated Disorders. 1987;1(4). doi:10.1097/00002093-198701040-00011

115. Dodart JC, Bales K, Gannon K, et al. Immunization reverses memory deficits without reducing brain A\upbeta burden in Alzheimer's disease model. Nature Neuroscience. 2002;5(5). doi:10.1038/nn842

116. Donega V, Nijboer C, Braccioli L, et al. Intranasal Administration of Human MSC for Ischemic Brain Injury in the Mouse: In Vitro and In Vivo Neuroregenerative Functions. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(11). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0112339

117. Doody R, Ferris S, Salloway S, et al. Donepezil treatment of patients with MCI: A 48-week randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Neurology. 2009;72(18). doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000344650.95823.03

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